Traumatic intracranial aneurysms associated with traffic accidents and endovascular management options
Traumatic intracranial pseudoaneurysms are rare complications of head injuries following traffic accidents, occurring in less than 1% of all cerebral aneurysms. Most cases are associated with fracture of the skull. Rupture of these traumatic aneurysms occur in up to 50% of all cases and are typically delayed from days to weeks following the initiating trauma. Traumatic pseudoaneurysms are often called a pulsating hematoma, which occurs when the arterial wall is ruptured by trauma and bleeding is confined only by the adventitia or surrounding tissues. Unlike the structure of a true aneurysm, that has all anatomical layers, the wall of a traumatic intracranial pseudoaneurysm is composed mainly of blood clot and a small amount of fibrous tissue. Difficult diagnosis, delayed presentation and poor outcomes contribute to overall prognosis of these traumatic intracranial aneurysms.
We investigated the patients with traumatic intracranial aneurysms developed after traffic accidents and treated with endovascular embolization in our Institution, with a review of literature and discussion of management options.
As traumatic intracranial aneurysms may present both diagnostic challenges and surgical difficulties, especially after polytrauma cases, rarely being appropriate for conservative treatment, early and precise diagnosis with cerebral angiography and prompt treatment are essential for good prognosis. Due to its nature to be fragile and prone to rupture, careful and precise endovascular embolization is thus a method of choice for treatment of these pseudoaneurysms.
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